Abstracts: CMOS Ottawa, 2019-2020

(in language given)

Béchard:  The Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) is Canada's agency for charting Canadian waters. Canada has the longest coastline of any country in the world, with more than a third of its territory under water.  As a maritime nation, global maritime transport traffic is significant. Hydrography supports safe navigation and shipping through the production of nautical charts and other publications including water levels. With opportunities provided by emerging technologies and the move to e-navigation and autonomous shipping, hydrography is becoming digital. This presentation will provide an overview of international developments and how CHS is preparing to make the move to a data-centric organization, moving from static to dynamic products and services.

Vogel:  The Lima-Paris Action Agenda of the Paris Agreement has formalized a role for sub-national entities such as cities (large urban source regions) as leaders in greenhouse gas mitigation and climate adaptation. Currently, over half of the world's population lives in metropolitan areas globally and urban regions also account for 82% of Canada's population in 2016 [World Bank]. Future population growth is also predicted to occur mostly in these urban centers, both globally and domestically. Therefore, the Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (IG3IS) of WMO/UNEP has identified urban GHG emission as a core action area where scientific information can be expected to respond to stakeholder needs in the near future. IG3IS activities aim to help create the framework to provide diagnosis of urban emissions at scales relevant to urban decision making and enable identification of low-carbon or carbon mitigation opportunities. After an introduction on IG3IS, results from research groups on data-driven, observational and (inverse) modelling techniques for city-scale GHG studies are presented, with a specific focus of previous work of the Climate Research Division of ECCC and its collaborators in the GTA. The strategy of how the GTA testbed can be efficiently completed to help support local decision makers and how ECCC can provide support to the wider IG3IS community is presented.

Hamzawi: This presentation will highlight key findings of Canada's Changing Climate Report and provide a broad overview of Canada's agenda on climate change action. The presentation will outline the importance of aligning science with policy and action. In doing so, Environment and Climate Change Canada is developing a National Climate Change Science and Knowledge Plan. The objectives of the Plan, including the critical role of partnerships, will be discussed.

DesjardinsThe development and evolution of Agricultural Meteorology in Canada in the 50s, 60s and 70s will be briefly reviewed and examples of some of the research done by some of the pioneers will be presented. Like in many areas of research, in the 80s and 90s, the research approach by small groups of agricultural meteorologists was eventually replaced by a multidisciplinary research approach. Examples from some of the large scale research projects that ensued, as well as some of the important findings, will be presented. These studies gave rise to a better understanding of the role of the major terrestrial ecosystems in the world on climate as well as the role of climate on these ecosystems.

The 2000s and 2010s brought a further shift away from Agricultural Meteorology to research on Climate Change with emphasis on Environmental Sustainability. I will present the findings by our research team of the estimates of the carbon footprint of agricultural products in Canada. Hopefully, this information will help producers and consumers make decisions that minimize the impact of the agriculture sector on climate change.

Laroche:  The Global Deterministic Prediction System (GDPS) plays a central role in Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) for the production of operational weather forecasts. This system provides medium-range forecasts and lateral boundary conditions to the Regional Deterministic Prediction System (RDPS) for short-range forecasts. The GDPS also supplies initial conditions for experimental prediction systems such as the Canadian Arctic Prediction System (CAPS), which provides km-scale forecasts over the Arctic for the Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) campaigns. Both the GDPS and RDPS use a 4D-EnVar data assimilation system to produce the initial conditions. Near 13 million observations from space-based and terrestrial networks are assimilated daily. 88% of these observations are from 17 satellites. The remaining observations are from terrestrial networks such aircraft, radiosondes, surface stations, ships and buoys. The impact of satellite and terrestrial observations on short to medium-range forecasts is not homogeneous over the globe, as revealed by recent Observing System Experiments (OSEs) as well as with Forecast Sensitivity to Observation Impact (FSOI) tools use for assessing the relative importance of observations on short-range forecast skill. These tools are very useful for providing objective guidance on future implementation and rationalization of meteorological observing networks.

Gilmore:  Estimates of the economic benefits of avoiding climate impacts by reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) are essential for identifying opportunities to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Here, I review approaches for monetizing the physical damages from climate change and how these values are employed for sound policy analysis. I then focus on two examples of advances in modeling these benefits: First, I discuss the co-benefits of GHG mitigation for the improvement of air quality and reductions in human health effects, especially premature deaths. Second, I examine the interactions of sea-level rise and human displacement and the implications for managing retreat from the coasts. These analyses show that taking action on climate change will benefit Canadians and people around the world by avoiding economic damages and saving lives.

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